Terms and Definitions

Ash Content indicates milling performance and how well the endosperm separates from the bran. Ash content can affect flour color. White flour has low ash content, which is often a high priority among millers, because consumers prefer white flour. 

Damaged Kernels are the kernels which may be undesirable for milling because of disease, insect activity, frost or sprout damages. 

Dockage is the percentage of wheat, measured by weight, easily removed from a wheat sample using the Carter Dockage Tester. 

Foreign Material is any material other than wheat that remains after dockage is removed. Because foreign material may not be removed by normal cleaning equipment, it may have an adverse effect on milling quality. 

Moisture Content is an indicator of grain condition and store ability. Moisture content is often standardized (12 or 14 percent moisture basis) for other tests that are affected by moisture content. Lower moisture levels are desired to prevent spoilage in storage. 

Protein Content relates to many important processing properties, such as water absorption and gluten strength, and to finished product attributes such as texture and appearance. Higher protein dough usually absorbs more water and takes longer to mix. Hard Red Winter wheat generally has a medium to high protein content, making it suitable for all-purpose flour and yeast raised flour foods. 7 

Shrunken and Broken Kernels are the kernels which were either insufficiently filled during the growing season and as a result have shrunken and shriveled appearance or have been broken in handling. Such kernels may reduce milling yield. 

Thousand-kernel weight and kernel diameter provide measurements of kernel size and density important for milling quality. Millers tend to prefer larger berries or at least berries with a consistent size. 

Total Defects is the sum of damaged kernels, foreign material and shrunken and broken kernels. 

Whole Wheat products are made with the whole wheat kernel. The bran (outer layer) contains the largest amount of fiber (insoluble), B vitamins, trace minerals and a small amount of protein; the endosperm (middle layer) contains mostly protein and carbohydrates along with small amounts of B vitamins, iron and soluble fiber; and the germ (inner part) is a rich source of trace minerals, unsaturated fats, B vitamins, antioxidants, phytochemicals and a minimal amount of high quality protein.